Vitamins are substances our bodies need to function properly. They include vitamins A, C, D, E, K, choline, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and vitamin B6. B vitamins, including vitamin B6, are water-soluble and are flushed out of our bodies in urine. We need all of these vitamins in proper amounts. The following are the recommended dietary references for each of these vitamins.
As essential micronutrients, vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body. They must be obtained from the diet. A vitamin deficiency can have adverse effects on the human body. Vitamins play a variety of roles in the body, from supporting the growth of cells to maintaining teeth, skeletal and soft tissues. Vitamin A supports the eyesight by maintaining the retina, which protects the eye's cornea and conjunctiva. Vitamin A is also necessary for the maintenance of the skin, intestines, bladder, inner ear, and skin.
The antioxidant properties of vitamin C play a crucial role in maintaining and rebuilding body tissues. This vitamin also forms protein in the skin, tendons, ligaments, bones, and scar tissue. It aids the absorption of iron, and is essential for body-building and disease prevention. It also acts as a reducing agent for metal nanoparticles. The benefits of vitamin C go far beyond its antioxidant properties. If you're looking to boost your immune system, take a vitamin C supplement. It's well worth your time and effort.
Vitamins are organic substances necessary for normal bodily function in higher forms of animal life. These compounds are distinct from other biologically important compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. While proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids can be synthesized by animals, vitamins must be obtained from food. Therefore, they are referred to as essential nutrients because they require small quantities to perform their functions. Dietary sources of vitamin D, for example, include fatty fish, eggs, milk, and cheese.
Vitamin A is derived from carotenoids found in plants. Beta-carotene is the most potent form of provitamin A, and it is abundant in most vegetables. Beta-carotene is a powerful antioxidant that the body can convert into vitamin A. Vitamin A content in foods is listed on food packages. Dietary sources of vitamin A vary depending on age and sex. The recommended daily allowance for males is 900 mcg RAE, and for females, it ranges from 3,000-36,000 IU.
Common symptoms of vitamin deficiency include bone pain, weakness, and mood changes. In young children and adolescents, the deficiency is more apparent. Insufficient red blood cells prevent oxygen from traveling throughout the body. In severe cases, deficiency can cause bone demineralization, which can lead to fractures. Severe vitamin deficiency can also result in convulsions and heart damage. Here are some symptoms to watch for:
Deficiency of vitamin A can lead to poor vision, especially at night or in dim lights. People with inflammatory bowel disease are also prone to deficiency. In most cases, however, a supplement is the only way to correct a vitamin deficiency. Foods rich in vitamin A include meat, colorful fruits and vegetables, and a daily supplement is available. Vitamin A deficiencies may lead to fatal consequences, and treatment requires supplementation.
Deficiency of vitamin C can negatively affect overall health. The effects of vitamin deficiency on the body are permanent, and if not treated, can affect different bodily functions. The good news is that if caught in time, you can counteract the symptoms of vitamin deficiency. In addition to supplementation, adjusting your diet can be effective. If you suspect you are deficient in vitamin C, consult your health care provider.
Muscle cramps are one of the most common symptoms of vitamin deficiency. Vitamin C helps muscles contract and relax, so a deficiency can lead to a prolonged bout of muscle pain. If you're prone to chapped lips, you may be deficient in vitamin D. However, you can find other causes for these symptoms. Vitamin D and calcium deficiency can lead to white spots on the nails. In addition, iron deficiency can cause fatigue.
Another symptom of vitamin deficiency is Bitot's spots. These are slightly elevated, foamy white growths found on the white part of the eyes. Once diagnosed and treated, these spots will disappear. Many people in developed nations do not suffer from this condition. Vitamin A-rich foods include organ meat, dairy products, eggs, yellow-orange fruits and vegetables, and dark leafy greens. The symptoms of vitamin deficiency are often hard to recognize, and can be difficult to diagnose.
Dietary reference intakes
The dietary reference intakes of vitamins are used for a variety of purposes. They are generally used to assess existing intakes and to plan future dietary intakes, for individuals or groups. The purpose of dietary reference intakes is to ensure that a person meets the recommended amount of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients to avoid specific deficiencies. Generally, these dietary guidelines are divided into four main categories: A, D, E, and K.
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of vitamins and minerals are recommended for individuals at every life stage. They may vary significantly from day to day, but there is generally no ill effect. In addition to defining the dietary requirements, the dietary reference intakes also specify the maximum levels for an individual's age, gender, and life stage. While there are no strict guidelines on what is appropriate, the dietary intake levels for children and adults should be consistent with these dietary recommendations.
EARs are daily nutrient levels based on a particular indicator of adequacy. For most B vitamins, EARs are calculated using a general formula. Further details are provided in Chapters 4 through nine. For example, EARs for vitamin B are higher for people who suffer from malabsorption syndrome or are receiving dialysis. These populations have much greater nutrient requirements and special guidance should be provided to them.